Monday, March 9, 2020

Maggie Marketing and Business

Maggie Marketing and Business Maggie: Marketing and Business-level Strategic Planning Essay Global Business Strategy Week10 Business-level Strategic Planning Learning Objectives Types of business-level strategies – Porter’s typology – Miles & Snow’s typology – Product life cycle Business-level strategic planning – Value-chain – Strategy clock Week 10 2 Porter’s Competitive Strategies Overall cost leadership – Supply the same product or service at a lower unit cost than competitors Differentiation – Supply a product or service of which one or more attributes are perceived as more valuable Focus – Target certain types of products for certain customer groups or regions Week 10 3 Cost-leadership Cost leader can be obtained through economies of scale simpler product design lower input costs efficient organisational process Case: IKEA simple, high-quality Scandinavian design (cost-saving in product design) buying offices in 45 countries (cost-saving in inputs) knock-down furniture kits (cost-saving in assembling and delivering) huge suburban stores (cost-saving in warehousing) customer self-service with tape measures, pens and notepaper (cost-saving in staffing) Week 10 4 Differentiation Differentiation brings competitive advantage meet the buyer needs in a unique manner create the higher perceived value and able to charge a higher price quality differentiation Rolex customer service Singapore Airlines value-for-money Fisher and Paykel, Mark and Spencer brand image Coca-Cola, Calvin and Klein Week 10 5 Focus focus strategy brings competitive advantage match the features of specific products to the needs of specific customer groups geographic region ethnicity purchasing power tastes cost focus and differentiation focus Week 10 6 Stuck in the middle Firms with no clear generic business strategy high Differentiation or low-cost strategy Focus strategy profitability Stuck in the middle low low market share Week 10 high 7 Miles & Snow’ Typology (1) Prospector – – – – Risk-taking Growth oriented Aggressively seek markets and opportunities Entrepreneurial style of management defender – – – – Protect current markets Maintain stable growth Serve existing customers Emphasize efficiency over innovation Week 10 8 Miles & Snow’ Typology (2) Analyzer – Protect current market share + create market opportunities – Seek balance between: Efficiency and innovation Risk-avoidance and risk-taking Control and flexibility Reactor – No consistent approach – React to environmental changes – Compared to prospector: Drifts with events vs. seek out opportunities Wait to be influenced/changed vs. influence/change the industry Week 10 9 Product Life Cycle (PLC) introduction growth mature decline Market growth Low High Low to moderate Negative Competition Low Increasing Intense Changing Overall objective Market awareness Create consumer demand Defend market Consolidate, share maintain or exit Sales and marketing Production efficiency Major functional R&D concern Week 10 General management and finance 10 Strategies based on PLC prospector analyzer defender reactor differentiation low cost low cost focus differentiation Week 10 11 Business-level Strategic Planning: value chain Organization Infrastructure Human Resources Information Systems Material Management support inbound logistics production outbound logistics Week 10 marketing & sales service 12 Value-added Analysis: sporting shoe industry Value-added 17 3 30 50 component manufacturing assembling wholesale retail 35% 30% 15% 100 10% cost Week 10 13 The smiling curve Week 10 14 Business-level Strategic

Saturday, February 22, 2020

The historical and literary significance of the relationship Essay

The historical and literary significance of the relationship concerning Emperor Xuanzong, An Lushan, and Yang Guifei - Essay Example Emperor Xuanzong, though, was held responsible for over-trusting An Lushan, Li Linfu andYang Guozhong during his late time in power, with Tang's golden era ending in the Anshi Rebellion. This was clear beginning of the Tang Dynasty's decline (Skaff 223). The An Shi Rebellion (755-763) was a whirling end in the Tang Dynasty’s recognition of foreigners. Subsequent to the Rebellion, it was narrow-minded that culture and rising persecution of foreign and religious communities. For this reason, cultural historians of the Tang allege that this attitudinal change was a reaction to the uprising. In current history, the Rebellion is at all times seen as a demonstration of the threat of the outsider (West 108). The attitudinal move of the Tang is thus seen, as a result, to this sudden manifested unfamiliar threat. This conventional explanation places the social and political as a reason, and assumes that the attitudinal shift was a natural outcome of the disastrous foreigner-led revolut ion. It has been found that the opposite is true. As is detailed above, the Rebellion was in no way strained along tribal lines, with both sides deeply associated with foreign control in China. The classification of the rebels as representative of the threat of the alien did not come up sensibly out of the actual situation. However, this clarity was produced by a cultural background that defined all the Tang Empire’s conflicts as a war stuck between the barbarians’ people and the Han. The attitudinal move away from cosmopolitanism and towards elimination of the foreigner pre-dated and defined the uprising (West 108). Through research, the development of this artistic shift in popular literature and politics was before the Rebellion. It is evident that the shift towards the elimination of the foreigner began at least three decades earlier to the Rebellion. In paragraph one sentence two the evidence of this shift, demonstrate how this cultural context affected the Tang e lites’ perceptive of the Rebellion as it occurred. Both in paragraph one and two support the thesis that the identification of the Rebellion as a foreign incursion was primarily caused by pre-Rebellion cultural shifts relatively to the actual events of the Rebellion. The An Shi Rebellion is named after the two rebel leaders (703-757). Turco-Sogdian frontier general named An Lushan, who revoked Tang and established his own rule in the central and northeastern regions of China (Ye 71). Guifei was born in 719 during the Dynasty of Tang, early in the sovereignty of Emperor Xuanzong. Almost immediately into his reign as rebel emperor, An Lushan was assassinated by his officers and own staff (West 108). The throne was passed to his son whose ruling was marked by military struggles that lead to rescue of west-central china by Tang. One of the generals seized the rebel state until his assassination in 762, where his son could not lead and was defeated by Tang forces and committed sui cide. This marked the end of the rebellion. Regardless of the overseas heritage of the two royal families of the radical state, the actual ethnic identity of equal sides was extremely complex. The rebel state had ties with Han Hebei separatists and engaged thousands of Han officials and generals, even as the Tang administration during the Rebellion functioned as a Uyghur vassal. The Tang surrender to foreigners would substantially outlive the Rebellion (Ye 323). The relationship of the three leader’

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Software Engineering Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Software Engineering - Essay Example Software requirements, 2. Software design, 3.Software construction, 4. Software testing, 5. Software maintenance, 6. Software configuration and management, 7. Software engineering management, 8. Software engineering process, 9. Software engineering tools and methods, 10. Software quality, and 11. Knowledge areas of related disciplines (Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Management, Mathematics, Project Management, Quality Management, Software Ergonomics, and Systems Engineering) (SWEBOK, 2004 p. 1-2). Software engineers, therefore, must be proficient with the latter knowledge areas to handle every software engineering projects properly, successfully and efficiently. The software engineering project being studied at hand is the Chat Application. According to the given case, the status of which is that there is an unexpected disappearing messages that caused the team one extra week to debug. Further, the Director for Software Services has the following comments, impressions and questions: 1. She is not pleased with the delay, 2. She comes to one of the status meetings to find out what happened, 3. She states, Your team has been testing this application for weeks and didnt find any problems, 4. She asked, Why didnt you find the problem sooner?, and 5. She also asked, Is there any way we can kept this from happening again? As a member of the team, she wants you to discuss the following: 1. Your opinion on testing, 2. Whether an application that passes testing is free from errors, 3. Whether it is possible to design a test that will find all potential errors in the Chat Application, 4. What other techniques or strategies can developers use in conjunction with testing. Software testing consists of the dynamic verification of the behavior of a program on a finite set of test cases, suitably selected from the usually infinite executions domain, against the expected behavior.†(SWEBOK, 2004 p. 5-1) Based on the above authoritative

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Biblical Terms Used in Counseling Essay Example for Free

Biblical Terms Used in Counseling Essay Dr. William Roberts LaTonia Watkins Liberty University COUN 501 December 18, 2009 Abstract The topic of counseling has been up for discussion for sometime as it relates to the spiritual or biblical aspect versus the worldview or secular concept. There has been some disagreement in regards to whether or not one can be a Christian counselor who have a level of morals and ethics that will allow them to not let their own personal beliefs affect the level of service they provide, when faced with an issue that goes against their beliefs. Upon conducting a biblical word search for counsel or counseling related terms it becomes evident that the core principles and foundation of counseling is found throughout the bible. The information obtained will detail the usefulness of the Bible in engaging in a meaningful as well as effective counseling profession. Biblical Terms Used In Counseling There has been much dispute as to the usefulness and validity for using biblical concepts in counseling. The most common disagreement is found between counseling professionals and Christian counseling professionals. Pride (2006) states, â€Å"psychology approaches human behavior from a secular, humanistic perspective. † Accordingly, Biblical revelation is irrelevant to understanding or changing human behavior. Psychology seeks to describe and explain human behavior apart from what God has clearly revealed. Its premises are derived from man-made theories, human wisdom and research conducted without a corresponding search for truth as God defines truth. Clinton and Ohlschlager (2002) have a different opinion of counseling and prefer using the Bible stating â€Å"secular psychology begins with a study of man’s ideas; Biblical counseling begins with a study of the Word of God as it relates to human behavior and human need. Therefore it is dependent upon the revealed mind of God rather than the easily deceived mind of man. † However it does not begin with God, it follows a path that lines up with the Word of God and examines man’s problems in light of God’s responses. The two aforementioned viewpoints are clear cut examples of the differences in opinions and viewpoints for counseling from a secular perspective as well as the religious perspective. Another view of counseling attempts to integrate religion/biblical views or perspectives with psychological counseling which is known as the secular-humanist view. Some view counseling as a process of prayerfully and sensitively listening to another person (Proverbs 18:13, 17), helping discern soul needs and providing biblical advice towards changing the attitudes and behaviors towards modeling God. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the validity of the Bible as a source for counseling and to expand the overall view of counseling perspectives. By examining words and concepts in the Bible as they relate to counseling the relationship between the two will be discovered. Using Biblical concepts adds depth and enriches the counseling relationship (Pride, 2006). Also addressed in this paper will be the ways of Biblical terms and their relationship to modern counseling concepts. Biblical counseling terms can provide a useful tool for counseling as well as allows for an understanding of counseling concepts in the field of counseling. Biblical Words Related to Counseling Counsel The term counsel is found to be translated 80 times throughout the King James Version of the bible which includes 74 verses between the Old Testament and the New Testament combined. According to the word search the term counsel is used interchangeably with several terms in the bible such as advise (Qal), consult (Nipal) and conspire (Hithpael). Judges 18:5 â€Å"They said, ‘Oh, good- inquire of God for us. Find out whether our mission will be a success. †Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ In this passage they are seeking (consult) God for his guidance (advise) in regards to the outcome of their mission. I Kings 12:8-9 â€Å"But he rejected the counsel of the elders and asked the young men he’d grown up with who were now currying his favor, ‘What do you think? What should I say to these people who are saying, give us a break from your father’s harsh ways- lighten up on us’? † This passage also shows an example of someone seeking advice in their situation. Mark 3:6 â€Å"The Pharisees got out as fast as they could, sputtering about how they would join forces with Herod’s followers and ruin him. † This scripture details how the Pharisees consulted together and decide that they would join forces with Herod’s followers and go against Jesus. John 18:14 â€Å"It was Caiaphas who had advised the Jews that it was to their advantage that one man die for the people. † In this scripture Caiaphas is advising (counseling) the people on Jesus dying for the people. Advise The word advise has 947 different translations in 873 versus in the King James Version of the Bible and is derived from the Hebrew word ya-ats, meaning to know, learn to know, to perceive, see and discern, to name a few. These translations were only referenced to the Old Testament according to Blue Letter Bible; however after cross referencing with Crosswalk, New Testament scriptures were listed as well. Exodus 18:19 â€Å"Now listen to me. Let me tell you how to do this so that God will be in this with you. Be there for the people before God, but let the matters of concern be presented to God. † This scripture details Moses father in law advising him to be there for the people, however to allow God to handle everything and work things out for them. I Kings 12:6 â€Å"King Rehoboam talked it over with the elders who had advised his father when he was alive. ‘What’s your counsel? How do you suggest that I answer the people? ’† In this scripture the King is seeking to be counseled and advised from the elders as to how he should treat the people. Acts 21:21 â€Å"Theyve been told that you advise believing Jews who live surrounded by Gentiles to go light on Moses, telling them that they dont need to circumcise their children or keep up the old traditions. This isnt sitting at all well with them. † In this scripture they are discussing getting advise as to whether they should follow the traditional teachings of Moses and allow their children to be circumcised or if they should go against tradition. Help The word help appears 126 times in 117 versus throughout the King James Version of the Bible the Old and New Testament according to Blue letter Bible. Help is listed as to help (Qal), succor (Niphal), or support (Hiphil) which is defined as to give or provide what is necessary to accomplish a task or satisfy a need; to contribute strength or means to; render assistance to; to cooperate effectively (Webster 2005). Genesis 2:18 â€Å"God said, ‘It’s not good for the Man to be alone; I’ll make him a helper, a companion. ’† In this scripture help is being used in the form of God giving Adam a companion in order for him to no longer be alone. Mark 9:24 â€Å"No sooner were the words out of his mouth than the father cried, ‘Then I believe. Help me with my doubts! ’† In this scripture the father of the demon possessed boy was seeking Jesus’ help with casting the demon out of his son. The father was acknowledging that he had a need of Jesus and that he knew that Jesus could help him, although a part of him had doubts, I would venture to say it was because the disciples had tried to cast the demon out of the boy and were unable to do so. Advice The word advice appears 9 times in 9 versus in the King James Version of the Bible and is derived from the Hebrew word dabar, meaning speech, word, speaking, thing. II Samuel 19:43 â€Å"And the men of Israel answered the men of Judah, and said , We have ten parts in the king, and we have also more right in David than ye: why then did ye despise us, that our advice should not be first had in bringing back our king? And the words of the men of Judah were fiercer than the words of the men of Israel. † In this scripture they are seeking advice as to why they were not sought out first as to the decision regarding bringing back the king. I Corinthians 1:10 â€Å"I have a serious concern to bring up with you, my friends, using the authority of Jesus, our Master. Ill put it as urgently as I can: You must get along with each other. You must learn to be considerate of one another, cultivating a life in common. † In this scripture Paul is giving the people advice on getting along with each other and learning to be considerate. Discussion After completing this assignment and getting the information and knowledge gained from this course I can say that my view of counseling has changed. Although I have read the bible many times, and I am taking up Professional Counseling, it did not occur to me until this assignment how the bible is definitely the foundation for any counseling practice. When you look at some of the terms used to describe Jesus in the text,( i. e. Master, Teacher, Counselor, etc. ) it puts things in to perspective as to where the foundation of counseling began. Jesus is the central focus of counseling and the exemplar of the Wonderful Counselor. The Bible is about counseling, giving both understanding of people and methods of ministering to people. The fear of God is the beginning of wisdom, and wisdom is the only worthy goal of counseling. (Carson, 2005). The Bible is authoritative, relevant and comprehensively sufficient for counseling. God has spoken to every issue that humans could possible face in the 66 Books of the Bible, which establishes the goal of counseling, how to change, what the role of the counselor is, counseling methods and so much more. The Bible’s view of counseling defines a distinctive ideal for how we as humans should live. The image of Christ is a familiar item in Christian profession, but its implications are often ignored when it comes to counseling. Much of the difficulty of counseling consists in sustaining suffers in hope through the comforts of the gospel. Counseling is simply the personalized ministry of the Bible, tailored to the particular situations and problems of individuals and small groups. In Genesis, God led the way when he was talking to Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden regarding the decision they made to disobey his word and follow the serpent. Although this is a clear cut example of God counseling the two (advising, consulting, teaching, helping, etc. ), I don’t think we (society) really looks at this situation in regards to a counseling aspect. Models of spiritual counseling in the Bible can serve as important templates for counseling in the professional (secular) as well as the Christian aspects. The emphasis on communication and relationships implies the concept of involvement which is dependent on availability to council (Acts 20:31) and the importance of balance in the process of counseling, (Galatians 6:2 and 6:5). Conclusion There are so many more words that are found in the counseling sector that are used throughout the Bible this paper only included a few. Hathaway (2009) talks about Proverbs and Psalms being gold mines of wisdom and consolation relevant to counseling. The words from the Bible relating to counseling enhances counseling and are deemed appropriate as they relate to counseling outside the Christian realm. A concern that arose while doing the research is that the Biblical counseling aspect is non-subjective and refers to the counsel and the instructive power of God through the Holy Spirit. Biblical words in counseling are the foundation from where counseling stems, which reiterates that there is nothing new under the sun as it relates to what can be found in the Word of God. McMinn (1996 )states scripture and the counseling approach God enjoins, treats all of human life. The Bible’s counseling, on which we must seek to model our own counseling, speaks to the gamut of problems in living. Scripture comforts the disturbed and disturbs the comfortable, turning people from foolishness to wisdom in every area: e. g. , learning to conciliate and to build constructive relationships in family, church, workplace, and neighborhood; attitudes and practices regarding finances and material possessions; responding to physical health or illness, to wealth or poverty, to success or failure, to acceptance or rejection; self-and other deception; addictive behaviors; the gamut of emotions, whether dysphoric (e. . , anger, depression, anxiety, fear, guilt) or euphoric (e. g. , love, happiness, joy, gratitude, confidence); decision-making; the response to suffering and bereavement; and so forth. In relation to using the Bible as a counseling tools it is best summed by Walker (2005) the Bible is sufficient to provide a systematic approach to counseling. The Bible pr ovides and models both counsel and counseling, teaching us to do likewise, with the intention of changing and sustaining people.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Ethical Dilemmas in Harper Lees To Kill A Mockingbird Essay -- Kill M

Ethical Dilemmas in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Black and white, right and wrong; do decisions that simple and clear even exist? Does a decision ever mean gaining everything without giving anything up? Many characters in To Kill A Mockingbird are forced to make difficult, heart wrenching decisions that have no clear right answer. Harper Lee presents many of these important decisions in To Kill A Mockingbird as ethical dilemmas, or situations that require a choice between two difficult alternatives. Both of these alternatives have unpleasant aspects and question morals and ethics. A person is put in an awkward position, with their mind saying contradicting things. These dilemmas are presented in many different ways. The decisions in the beginning of the book are simple and can be solved quite easily, yet they are symbolic of later decisions. Other dilemmas place adult-like decisions in the lap of a child. One dilemma concerned a man burdened with the strict traditions of the South. Then there are the two biggest dilemm as, Atticus' decision to take the case and Heck Tate's choice between truth and the emotional well being of a man. Lee's ingenious storyline is established by these crucial and mentally arduous choices faced by the characters. The first half of To Kill A Mockingbird contains many classic dilemmas that serve as models for more important problems later to come. For example, Atticus is forced into a choice between disobeying Scout's teacher and doing what he feels is right for Scout. Atticus wants Scout to retain her respect for the teacher and to continue following her instructions. Yet, he knows that the time he shares with his daughter is very important and is something that will h... ...o take. Unlike plot, the ethical dilemmas do not follow in importance from beginning to end. The most important decision occurred in the middle of the book, however the final ethical dilemma was very important in bringing the reader a feeling of conclusion. The perfection to which the ethical dilemmas were presented and resolved was impressive and key to the stunning impact of To Kill A Mockingbird. Sources Consulted Erisman, Fred. "The Ethical Dilemmas of Harper Lee." Alabama Review April 26, 1983: 122-36. Johnson, Claudia. "The Secret Courts of Men's Hearts: Code and Law in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird." Studies in American Fiction (1991):129-139. Jones, Carolyn. "Black and White and Atticus Finch." The Southern Quarterly Summer 1999: 56-63. Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York City, NY:Â   J.B.Lippincott Company, 1990.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Consider the role of Iago in act III scene 3 and show how Shakespeare portrays Iago, and the effect he has on Othello

Iago is one of Shakespeare's most unforgettable desperados. In Act III scene 3 Iago's feelings are driven by a passion of such intense strength that, even though we might understand his motives, it is difficult to feel that anything other than pure evil could compel him to such extremes of behaviour as a result. We also see Iago taking a powerful, sadistic delight in the damage which he causes throughout the scene, and how he has a cancerous effect on Othello and his relationship with Desdemona. Iago manipulates the perceptions of other characters with great skill, using lies which contain sufficient truth. He is an opportunist, and takes advantage of anything. ‘Ha! I like not that.' Iago plants a seed of guilt, which he nurtures throughout the scene. He advocates that the figure he has seen leaving cannot be Cassio, because he is a respectable and worthy man who would not stoop to such a sneaking and fraudulent kind of behaviour. By suggesting that an action, which might seem innocent, may in reality conceal something altogether more suspicious, Iago cleverly hints that Cassio has a guilty conscience. The effectiveness of the compound word ‘guilty-like' used by Iago puts an element of doubtfulness and apprehension in Othello. At the beginning of the scene there is an open, playful, loving relationship between Othello and Desdemona: ‘Tis as I should entreat you wear gloves, Or feed on nourishing dishes, or keep you warm,' This flirtatious discussion is the last time we see love and contentment between Othello and Desdemona. ‘Excellent Wretch' This is Othello's last statement of happiness. The words show an eternal world of love and lust; Othello loves Desdemona deeply. From that moment on Othello suffers a torment of jealousy; his happiness is being ate away by the covetousness seed that Iago has planted. Iago is a fine judge of character: he knows what people like and what makes people irritated and infuriated. ‘Did Michael Cassio, When you wooed my lady, know of your love?' Iago is prodding Othello. He is not giving him a straight answer, and this deeply exasperates and annoys Othello. Iago uses good tactics to form a sense of culpability and doubt in Othello. Iago's hesitations frighten Othello. In a performance of this scene, the actor playing Iago should put prominence and emphasis on ‘think' as this would create an impression of guilt. ‘Men Should be what they seem' This statement is ironic. If Iago was what he seemed he would be good, trustworthy and loyal, but he is not. He is iniquitous and impious. He is able to put on false front. Iago is a consummate dissembler. Iago has now begun to plant a seed of hesitation and uncertainty in Othello. ‘As where's that palace, whereinto foul things Sometimes intrude not?' Iago articulates how the purest spirit may still endure from foul things. This echoes exactly what is happening in this scene. Iago is pouring his foul, evil poison into the mind of Othello. This causes Othello to doubt what is really happening. No matter how many dreadful things Iago says, Othello is left with the abiding belief that he knows more terrible things than he has been told and is trying to diminish the upset because of his honest friendship and regard for him: ‘Though I perchance am vicious in my guess†¦' Iago again uses the extremely effective tool of appearing to be very reluctant in speaking ill of others whereas at the same time managing to advocate that he knows much more which would cause distress to Othello if he were to know the truth ‘Who steals my purse, steals trash; 'tis something, nothing; ‘Twas mine, 'tis his, and has been slave to thousands: But he that filches from me my good name Robs me of that which not enriches him And makes me poor indeed.' Here we see the effect Iago has had on Othello. Iago has threatened Othello in his most defenceless area: his reputation. Iago is very dexterous. He tells Othello that his reputation is everything. This is the opposite of what he said to Cassio, telling him that his status was not everything. Iago then ingeniously tells Othello to be aware of being jealous, to hide his jealousy. This cunningly plants the thought of being covetous in his mind. Iago is again taunting Othello. He is building up his heat-oppressed mind. ‘Thou dost conspire against thy friend, Iago,' Othello knows that Iago is keeping something terrible from him. Shakespeare uses dramatic irony. Othello says that Iago is plotting against him by not telling him his thoughts, but Iago is telling Othello his thoughts whilst at the same time plotting against him. Iago is getting Othello emotionally prepared for what he is planning to inform him. Iago uses good psychology by keeping Othello at a distance by not expressing his thoughts to him. ‘Ha!' Othello's short, sharp speeches portray the effect Iago has had on him, emotionally. It shows the state of mind that Iago has reduced Othello to. Othello has been emotionally reduced. This shows that Iago is gaining the ascendancy. The roles have swapped. Iago is now the more dominant of the two. Iago introduces the word ‘cuckold'. He explains to Othello that it is better to know Desdemona is having an affair compared to not knowing and the torment of a man who is infatuated but insecure, who suspects his wife but continues to love and adore. Iago is again taunting Othello. He is purposely building up an element of doubt and suspicion in Othello. At this point Iago assumes he has convinced Othello that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio, but things go wrong. Othello tells Iago that he is not going to doubt Desdemona until he sees it and therefore if he does, Othello can then prove that Desdemona is disloyal and unfaithful. For a short period of time this throws Iago off track. Up until now Iago has just dropped hints. This has not worked to his best advantage. Now he becomes much more direct and focused and attempts an innovative, diverse approach. Although we condemn and depreciate Iago's malevolence, it is very difficult for us not to admire his skill and creativity. ‘I speak not yet of proof†¦ Look to your wife, observe her with Cassio' Iago skilfully twists his words so that the fact of Desdemona's deceitfulness and dishonesty appears not to be in question. Iago tells Othello of his innocence and ingenuity of Venetian customs. ‘I know our country disposition well' This further persuades Othello to believe his lies by pointing out how Desdemona has already deceived her father in marrying him. This echoes Brabantio's final words in Act I scene 3. ‘She had deceived her father, and may thee.' Iago reminds Othello this at the best possible time, when he is feeling at his most vulnerable. Iago tells Othello how Desdemona is exceptionally good at deceiving people, as she did it to her own father. This is also ironic as Iago is a skilled dissembler, and yet is accusing Desdemona of also being a consummate dissembler. Othello is reduced to single utterances, which show he is losing confidence and has something on his mind. It shows the impact Iago is having on him. Again, it illustrates to us that Iago is now the much more dominant of the two and is gaining control. Othello's diminutive answers show he is reading into what Iago is saying. This also emphasizes our sense of Othello's significant theatrical status as an ‘outsider', someone so unfamiliar with the Venetian customs and society that Iago's lies will seem conceivable, and who will accept as true the suggestion that all Venetian women routinely commit treachery and betrayal. Iago is not only an expert at manipulating people, but also at manipulating words. ‘I think she's honest' Iago ingeniously picks up on words and fills them with hesitation and doubt. Othello reacts to this by leaving the stage. This shows us that the poison, which Iago planted, is now spreading. Iago has a cancerous effect on him. Iago then continues to provoke uncertainty and suspicion in Othello by putting forward the idea that it was un-natural in Desdemona for choosing Othello. She refused proposals from men who were from her own country, men of the same race, and in the same rank as her, and she chose Othello instead. Iago takes a risk. He implies that Desdemona is un-natural and lustful, as she has chosen someone older than her and someone not of the same race. We can see the dramatic impact Iago has had on Othello. In Act III Scene 3, Othello is bursting with love for Desdemona ‘ Excellent Wretch!' Now Othello is asking himself ‘Why did I marry?' This shows how successful Iago has been bringing down Othello's happiness. He has taken his height of happiness and filled it with covetousness, distrust and jealousy. Iago has done all this without any proof, which shows that he is a brilliant operator. He has taken Desdemona's goodness and corrupted it into a vice of loyalty. Iago has a deep knowledge of the human psyche and is smartly and ingeniously able to manipulate feelings- for his benefit. Iago has convinced Othello that Desdemona has committed adultery because of his race and because he does not have a smooth engaging conversation like some other men have. ‘This fellow's of exceeding honesty' This is the first soliloquy given to Othello. This allows us to see the inner workings of Othello, which have been unable to be seen until now. The correspondence between the outward appearance and inner reality begins to break down. Othello dwells upon what he has come to see as his deficiencies in the eyes of others. Desdemona may well see him as a black man and who has few civilised graces of more sophisticated men. Desdemona enters and is concerned her husband is not well. Othello is unwell, but not in the way Desdemona thinks, for he is sick of spirit, not of body. Othello has convinced himself he's been ‘abused' and his only relief is to despise her. There is a total contrast between the contentment and delight in Desdemona and the tormented and tortured soul of Othello. Iago mentions the prospect of providing Othello with ‘proof'. Yet in no circumstances proof has been impending, and still Iago is able to skilfully able to compose characters to act and feel guilt and suspicion to act with certain proof on many occasions. Iago sees innocent things and turns them into acts of guilt and causes suspicion in people. This allows him to move the criteria for Desdemona's remorse and guilt onto such a modest thing as a handkerchief. ‘I will in Cassio's lodging lose this napkin, And let him find it.' In Iago's soliloquy he reveals the key to his success, in proving that Desdemona's adultery is in no doubt. It is Othello's weakness, which will bring out his destruction. ‘The mines of sulphur' This gives us the image of hellfire. Iago is often connected with the powers of hell, evil and torture. Othello re-enters. This shows he is confused and has a perplexed state of mind. ‘I slept the night well, was free and merry; I found not Cassio's kisses on her lips.' Iago obtains a sinister, evil, malicious enjoyment from the torture and torment he has caused Othello. He has turned the loyal Othello into a confused, eager man who has been totally consumed by jealousy and melancholy. Othello has been deduced. He says goodbye to a peaceful mind. The repetition of ‘farewell' shows the completeness of his loss. But the sad thing is he has lost nothing. Yet he does not know that. We see a human being rapidly destroyed by another human. Othello is declining and emotionally becoming bitter, almost approaching insanity. ‘I think my wife be honest, and think she is not, I think thou art just, and think thou art not' Othello is waving between suspicion and loyalty as he struggles with himself to determine the truth. In choosing between Desdemona and Iago, it is Othello's inability to accept his own potential for love and trust which destroys him. This is an important turning point for Othello. Othello's vision of himself and his wife excludes such compromise, and so when Iago offers Othello ‘proof' he is savage in the passion with which he believes her to be guilty. What we see here is evidence of Iago's mastery of intrigue and deception. ‘Give me a living reason, that she's disloyal.' Iago has put himself in an awkward situation. Iago's bombardment has an effect on Othello. He has awakened Othello's wrath and if he cannot support his suggestions of Desdemona's infidelity he will pay dearly for it. Othello is now desperate to be certain, that he seems almost keen to pounce upon Iago's account as true. This is ironic, as the roles of the characters are briefly changed, when Iago comments on Cassio speaking in his sleep. Othello is convinced of Desdemona's betrayal and Iago who is arguing in support for Cassio, ‘it was but his dream'. Othello has now overtaken Iago's plotting and sweeps the action along. Iago is unable to give Othello proof, so Iago cunningly makes proof sound dirty so that Othello will not ask any further questions. The image Iago paints in Othello's mind is repulsive, sordid and disgusting. Iago uses animal images to describe the action of Cassio and Desdemona together. This is significant as he is again reducing beauty to a disgusting act. He reduces the sex act to a bestial and foul level. ‘Do not rise yet.' Iago kneels with Othello as they swear a ‘sacred vow' to seek ‘black vengeance' against Desdemona and Cassio. As Iago's work on Othello begins to stoke up a furnace of jealousy and his sense of wronged honour, we see a change in Othello's behaviour. We also see how the language of Iago and Othello has been interchanged with the roles. Iago is now clearly the master in the relationship, as the villain speaks of vows to heaven. Othello, using language more appropriate to that of Iago, says of Desdemona: ‘Damn her, lewd minx'. His effectiveness as a character in the play rests upon the way he is seen differently by the other characters, who see loyalty, honesty and trustworthiness, and by the audience, who see a malevolent, who manipulates others with the intention of completely destroying them. Iago is portrayed as a self-admiring, vicious, weak, cruel and arrogant character that is only able to achieve his ends through the weakness of others. He is not merely a symbol of iniquity and malevolence, but is much more. The malign Iago turns Othello, from a noble, heroic, loving innocent man and destroys him. Iago falls prey to the same suspicion he generates in Othello and, through controlling the plot for most of the scene, moves Othello towards his cynical view of the world.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Differentiating the Diagnosis Between Autism and...

Twenty years ago, we seldom heard of the terms Autism or Aspergers Syndrome. Today the terminology seems to be as well known as the words Schizophrenia or Down Syndrome . Most of us know someone who has a relative with one of these disorders, or have a child or a relative ourselves who has been diagnosed. While the terms are recognizable, these disorders are relatively new to the ordinary citizen. The knowledge of the cause, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment are even further limited. For those who have children or siblings that have one of these disorders, the symptoms and treatment are very well known, as they immerse themselves into learning as much as possible about the disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Pervasive†¦show more content†¦The ADOS is an activity or play based assessment that provides information through observation of different aspects of social behavior (Le Couteur, 2008). The ADOS summary disagnostics alogrithm distinguishes between ASD and not ASD (Le Couteur, 2008). According to the New Zealand Autism Spectrum Disoder Guideline, The Diagnostic Criteria for ASD, under the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 there must be six or more symptoms over the period of three years (Wellington, 2008). Some examples listed in the Guideline for Autism Diagnosis are: 1. Qualitative impairment in social interaction manifested by at least two of the following: Impairment in eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures or gestures, failure to develop relationships with peers, lack of social or emoitonal reprocity, or lack of seeking to share enjoyment (Wellington, 2008). 2. Qualitative impairments in commnications manifested by one of the following: Delay or lack of spoken language, marked impairment in the ability to initiate orsustain conversations with others, repetitive use of the same language, or lack of spantaneous make believe play or social imitative play (Wellington, 2008). 3. Restrictive Repetitive patterns of behavior, intrest or activities by one of the following: Preoccupation with one or more pattern of interest, such as being obsessed with the weather or dinosaurs, apparent inflexibility to non functional rountines or rituals, repetitive motor mannerismsShow MoreRelatedAutism Spectrum Disorder ( Asd )885 Words   |  4 PagesBACKGROUND Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a condition that affects a group of complex disorders of brain development. Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulties with social interactions, social communication and an unusually restricted range of behaviors and interest (David R. Simmons, 2009). 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